INDONESIA GENERAL INFO
Visitors can find island paradises, big cities, Bahasa Indonesia,
jungles, orang-utans, Hindu temples, Monkey Forests and more in the
world's biggest Islamic nation.
Indonesia - Location: Indonesia is a sprawling collection
of over 17,000 islands in South-East Asia. The archipelago is formed
around the equator, sandwiched between the Asian mainland and Australia.
It shares a border with Malaysia (on Borneo), East Timor and Papua
Indonesia - Capital city: The capital of Indonesia
is Jakarta, and it is your archetypal Asian city. Boasting a population
of nearly ten million, it is almost a dictionary definition of bustling.
It’s busy to the point of frenetic, and it’s not for everyone,
but lovers of truly big cities will be in heaven.
Indonesia - Other major cities: Being a nation of
islands, just about everywhere has its own important hub. Yogyakarta
is in the middle of Java, and although it plays second fiddle to Jakarta
in financial terms, it is generally regarded as the main island’s
cultural capital. Banjarmasin, meanwhile is the star attraction on
Kalimantan (the Indonesia part of Borneo). It is criss-crossed with
canals, and is genuinely beautiful.
Indonesia - Population: Indonesia has a population
of over 225 million people. Most of them are Muslim, making it easily
the most populous Islamic nation on earth.
Indonesia - Languages spoken: With so many islands,
and so many different cultures, it’s no wonder that it was a
linguistic nightmare before the government introduced Bahasa Indonesia.
It’s generally regarded as the easiest language in the world
to learn, and it needs to be too, as it’s the unifying second
language used to unite the hundreds of different tongues across the
Indonesia - What we know it for: The wild jungles
of Borneo and Sumatra, full of orang-utans and thick rainforest, are
almost pilgrimage sites for those who really want to get wild with
nature. Meanwhile, many of the islands are virtually deserted –
a fantastic opportunity to get away from it all. It is a former Dutch
Indonesia - Why you should go: The joy of Indonesia
is that it is effectively hundreds of different countries. You could
easily island hop for years and never get bored. There are also lots
of surfing hotspots for the more adventurous.
Indonesia - Great place to visit: The most famous
island is Bali, which has long been synonymous with a tropical paradise.
And, once you’ve got away from all the drunk Australians in
Kuta, this is precisely the case. Ubud, in the centre of the island,
is a particular treasure. You can go to see the Hindu temples in the
Monkey Forest, then return to watch a Balinese dance troupe.
Wreck diving is a specialized area of scuba diving that can be enjoyed
by all divers, in all areas of the world. In tropical destinations,
traveling tourists can dive and photograph beautiful wrecks in crystal
clear water. These wrecks, for the most part, require only standard
equipment and scuba skills. On the East Coast of the U.S. sport divers
visit and penetrate intact sunken German U-boats, tug boats, destroyers
and sailing ships. This type of wreck diving is more advanced due
to potentially deeper diving and rough water or limited visibility
conditions. Depending on the condition of the wreck, water, and whether
a penetration is planned, special skills and equipment are needed
to make the dive as enjoyable and as safe as possible.
Each wreck is a time capsule into history waiting to be explored by
sport divers eager for a glimpse into the past. Divers may also find
interesting artifacts while exploring the remains of sunken ships,
enabling them to make a contribution to historians and archaeologists
by giving them the information needed for wreck identification and
A positive mental attitude is important when participating in any
wreck dive. If an improperly trained diver were to penetrate a wreck
encountering darkness and stirred up silt, claustrophobia and stress
could soon lead to panic. If this situation is not immediately handled
with a cool head, the results could be fatal. Never dive beyond your
own experience or training capabilities. If you have any doubt, don't
do it. Wreck divers should use some of the rules cave divers have
been using for years. If any diver in the group does not feel comfortable
with a dive, then the dive should be aborted. Staying calm, moving
slowly throughout your dive, knowing your equipment and the location
of lights and an alternate air source can help prevent stress. Preventing
stress can also come from diving frequently, not being over weighted,
having properly maintained and working equipment, and knowledge of
the wreck and dive site.
Throughout the world there are shipwrecks of all types and ages. They
range from ancient Egyptian vessels and Spanish galleons, which now
are often only piles of ballast stone, to commercial ships, barges,
airplanes and smaller private vessels. Each is distinctly interesting
for many reasons and is approached with a slightly different diving
style. As divers explore different types of wrecks, they soon notice
that the deeper wrecks are often more intact than the wrecks closer
to shore which suffer from the constant pounding from the sea and
become broken up and scattered over a large area.
The equipment used in wreck diving will vary from location to location
keeping in mind to streamline your profile as much as possible to
reduce drag, permit easier swimming and eliminate the possibility
of becoming snagged. Use the appropriate thermal protection for the
water conditions and depth. Penetration of small areas and corridors
requires a tether line, lights, knives, and the knowledge and mental
attitude to function safely in an enclosed environment.
Most wreck dives are done from a boat, anchored above the site. Depending
on visibility and currents, it can at times be difficult to find the
anchor line when returning to the boat. Minimize navigation problems
by starting the dive into the current. If the wreck is intact and
the visibility is good, it is often no problem to note where you are
and return later. If visibility is limited or if the wreck is scattered
over a large area, divers can use a tether line reel, clipping one
end on the anchor line and letting line out as they explore the wreckage.
Another method is the perimeter search in which a diver descends on
the anchor line and then swims directly to either side of the wreck
noting unique features and their relative position to the anchor line.
Take a compass reading from the anchor line to the wreck and again
along the wreck, using the reverse headings to return. A small strobe
light attached to the anchor line is also a useful aid in returning
to the boat.
Penetration is an advanced form of wreck diving. Recreational diving
does not typically include penetration and should only be done by
those with adequate training and experience. A diver must be disciplined
and know their limits. Duplication of air sources, lights, knives,
and gauges are necessary for diver safety when penetrating and staying
inside enclosed wrecks. Memory alone is not sufficient for finding
the way out of a wreck, especially in an emergency situation when
you're under stress. Divers should use a penetration line tied just
inside the entry point and again within sight of the opening. A head-mounted
light comes in very handy when trying to reel and see ahead. Silt
and suspended particles are another concern and danger to divers who
explore the interior of shipwrecks. Reduce fin kicks in this situation
and avoid bubble bursts that can also stir up silt and particles.
If visibility is reduced, stay still for a few minutes and the water
may clear enough to use lights and/or find ambient light and a way
out. As with any situation while diving, calm and rational thought
is mandatory. Panic leads to disaster
In summary, 1) Be trained and dive within your own limitations. 2)
Use a tether line and secure it in at least two places. 3) Reserve
at least two thirds of your air supply for the swim out. 4) Carry
at least 3 lights. 5) Become proficient in emergency procedures through
practice. 6) Never depend on another's ability to get you in and out
of a wreck, know your own limitations. 7) Maintain contact with the
guide line. 8) Avoid silt by maintaining buoyancy. 9) Avoid passageways
where you cannot turn around.
Decompression Sickness—Information and
DCI can strike a scuba diver at any time, whether you're a new guppy
or an old salt that has hundreds or thousands of dives under your
weight belt. All divers need to know what the symptoms are and how
to prevent it.
Decompression illness consists of two conditions, DCS is a series
of symptoms that result from the presence of bubbles formed in either
the tissues or blood as a result of changes in pressure on the body.
These may directly cause symptoms locally by mechanical injury to
tissue or indirectly resulting from the blockage of blood vessels.
Arterial gas embolism (AGE) occurs when gas bubbles enter the blood
stream usually as a result of decompression damage to a lung (pulmonary
embolism), where the bubbles travel in the blood to the brain and
cause cerebral symptoms.
Itching skin, rash
Joint or muscle pain and swelling
Tingling or numbness in limbs
Muscle weakness, stiffness
Headache, nausea, vomiting
Abnormal bladder or bowel function
Vision disorders, hearing or memory problems
Early detection and treatment with 100% oxygen is the most effective
way to ensure full recovery and no permanent damage. Divers Alert
Network (DAN) reports that the majority of injuries reported to them
involve a significant delay in symptom recognition and treatment whether
it is being put on oxygen at the dive facility or being sent to a
recompression chamber for treatment.
If you or your dive buddy experiences any of these symptoms following
a dive, whether it's the first dive of the day or the 10th in a week-long
dive vacation, notify the divemaster immediately and seek further
help in evaluating your symptoms. Don't just ignore it, hoping it
will go away and keep diving. This will worsen any episode of DCI
and make recompression treatment more likely to fully resolve the
injuries and remove the nitrogen gas bubbles from the blood stream
or soft tissues.
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Lower Your Risk
Follow these basic guidelines to reduce your risk for DCI:
Ascend Slowly, giving the absorbed nitrogen bubbles time to be exhaled
as the pressure is reduced. Recommendations now are 30 feet per minute
maximum ascent rate. Go slow and watch your depth gauge.
Safety Stop at 15 Feet, again giving the nitrogen an opportunity to
leave your system through the lungs at reduced pressure. Do a safety
stop after every dive.
Watch Your Time, leaving a little extra cushion in your dive profile
or green on your computer dial is wise and safer than pushing the
deco limits on every dive-especially when you're doing multiple dives
on multiple days.
End Shallow, making the deepest part of the dive first and then slowly
rising to 15 feet over the course of the dive will act as decompression
for the early part of the dive. Still do a 3-5 minute stop at 15 feet.
Avoid Bounce Profiles, minimizing the number of ascents and descents
in a dive. Watch your depth to determine how you're managing your
dive profile and if you do see something above you 10-15 feet, go
up slowly to check it out.
Avoid Dehydration, drink those 8 glasses of water a day to thin your
blood and help move the nitrogen through your system more efficiently.
Stay Warm, wear thermal protection on every dive even in the hottest
tropical climates. The water is cooler than your body temperature
of 98.6 degrees, so you are losing body heat every time you're in
the water. Multiple dives can really lower your body temperature,
shutting down circulation to your extremities. If those tissues have
become saturated with nitrogen, there is less blood flow to carry